National Intelligence Council: Water wars are coming

In 2012, the U.S. Intelligence Council issued a report warning that in the next few decades, the fragile ecosystem of international trade and political partnership that America relies on will be threatened as countries that are “important to US interests” come to blows over a single invaluable resource: water. Not oil. “Water is the new oil,” so say economists, business executives and political scientists. Yes, while the majority of the wars of the 20th century were fought over terrain bubbling over with crude, the wars of tomorrow will likely be fought over countries with access to aquifers, canals and fresh water springs.

People, people everywhere, and not a drop to drink

As the U.S’s drought this year has proven, water scarcity is coming for all of us. California has become a kind of national symbol of bad times to come; their current predicament presents all kinds of water-related conundrums that Americans seem to have little response to but bafflement. 

Yet if idea that fresh water is disappearing is a truly horrifying prospect for commodity-coddled Americans, these harsh conditions have been a reality for millions of people all over the world for quite some time. As it stands now, nearly “1 billion people in the developing world don’t have access to” clean drinking water. With this lack of clean water comes rampant disease, sickness and death; it’s estimated that a child dies from water-related illnesses every five minutes.  

The bad news is that as horrible as this is, things are actually about to get a whole lot worse, as our population is growing and our water supplies are shrinking. We’re currently speeding towards a global population of 8 billion people by 2025. A National Intelligence Council report predicts that: “The developing world, with its rapidly expanding urban centers, will see the biggest increases in water demand, as its population grows larger and more affluent.” Put simply, there’s a whole lot of demand and very little supply. The report continues:

Between now and 2040, global demand for fresh water will increase, but the supply of fresh water will not keep pace with demand…annual global water requirements will reach 6,900 billion cubic meters (bcm) in 2030, 40 percent above current sustainable water supplies.

That’s right: we’re looking at a global water shortfall of roughly 40 percent, which will leave billions of people without adequate water. With that kind of scarcity, it doesn’t take wild stretches of the imagination to see how things are ripe for conflict — which the report warns could happen within years.

Weaponizing water

The report predicts that, over the next decade, water will increasingly become a political asset as well as a weapon — something that countries with the abilities to “to construct and support major water projects,” will use as leverage against those that don’t. In this way, water will become a means by which nations “obtain regional influence” and dominance over others. Those with the means to do so will find themselves in a race to buy up as much water — and therefore, as much political power — as possible. 

USS Annapolis, via Wikimedia Commons

USS Annapolis, via Wikimedia Commons

Yet the report also warns that, after the next decade, conflicts over water may not stop at political squabbling. It says that “as water shortages become more acute beyond the next 10 years…future water shortages and a well-established pattern of water problems…[will aggravate] regional tensions” between nations, leading to “political conflict and even war.”

Even more concerning, the report suggests that water-centered terrorism may become a trend. Considering that “the fear of massive floods or loss of water resources would alarm the public,” radical groups will be motivated to target infrastructure such as dams, desalinization facilities and water pipelines. As water-related infrastructure projects become “high-publicity targets,” terrorists will use them to garner media attention and damage important public resources.

The biggest threat 

Maybe the biggest threat to peace, however, isn’t exploding dams but rather the threat of state failure, with countries collapsing from within due to lack of water. The report suggests that water scarcity will destabilize key political and economic systems, which may cause countries already under considerable strain to buckle and implode. Factors that may contribute to this level of instability include:

  • Risks to national and global food markets: Approximately 70 percent of the world’s water supply is devoted to agriculture, which makes a water crisis a huge threat to agricultural output and food markets. Due to the global population boom of recent years, many nations have “over-pumped their groundwater to satisfy growing food demand.” The report warns that, without mitigation, nations risk exhausting their current water supplies. This would result in a decline in food production, causing market failure and mass starvation.
  • Risk to energy resources: Because hydropower is still an incredibly important means of generating electricity, water shortages pose a huge threat to developing countries and their infrastructure. Without sufficient hydropower, developing nations will need to switch to an alternative source of energy, or face mass destabilization.  

Water shortages exacerbate any underlying political or economic issues. In this sense…

…when combined with poverty, social tensions, environmental degradation, ineffectual leadership, and weak political institutions— [water shortages contribute] to social disruptions that can result in state failure.

Given that the U.S. controls the largest reservoirs of fresh water in the world, it is unlikely that America will face state failure. But states that America considers vital to its interests are not so lucky, and destabilization amongst the countries we dominate for resources could have a significant effect on the U.S. economy, as well as its political and military reach in the world.

Potential solutions

So how do we curb the likelihood for chaos and war? The report offers several tentative solutions, such as water sharing agreements and improved water management technology. Yet the report warns against what is perhaps the most common solution suggested in America and around the globe: water privatization. As I’ve written about before, water privatization is favored by many powerful political and corporate actors, including the World Bank. The report warns that: 

Privatization…can threaten established use patterns by increasing the costs of water or transferring ownership of water sources to private companies without proper local governance structures. Privatization also makes water supply vulnerable to market forces which…can lead to instability, as people become unable to afford water and/or become restive as they perceive their right to water being threatened.

Instead of privatizing water supplies, the report suggests that properly run government water utilities can both produce enough revenue to finance infrastructure, and can adequately provide for low-income as well as high-income communities. For America, this is the only logical solution. Profits for shareholders should never be a motivating factor in the management of our most precious resource. The best we can hope for is that grass-roots initiatives in the U.S. will help keep public water in the hands of well-funded and responsible local government. This is the only way of ensuring that our water will continue to be considered a right — not a “product” for the likes of Nestle and Citibank.


Lucas Ropek is a journalist based in Massachusetts. He worked for the Working Families Party in NYC on issues of income inequality and worker rights. His interests include U.S. foreign policy, pop-culture, and freedom fries.

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  • The_Fixer

    Of course, there will be no rapture event. You’re right, the human race will die out as a result of our own action (or inaction). But a guy can hope, right? :)

    Of course, the Evangelicals will doubtless claim such a circumstance as being the Rapture. The meaning of their book, and thus their theology, is pretty malleable sometimes.

  • Jim Olson

    Sorry, but the Rapture is a 19th c. creation, and not actually going to happen in the way that Evangelical Christianity wants it to. We’re more likely to starve or die of thirst first.

  • Gindy51

    And that idiot pope has his role to play in over population as well. Green pope my ass, unless he and his ilk get rid of their archaic love of more converts, he is just as vile as the oil companies.

  • zerosumgame0005

    it is called a “water empire” and it will be very hard to bring the thugs in charge down

  • ElJiffy

    If the US does indeed control the largest reservoir in the world of fresh water — a resource, it can never be stressed enough, that is as indispensable to our survival, and the survival of all life on the planet, as the air we breathe — and does nothing to protect it, as a vital national interest, from being used up and wasted by harmful practices like fracking, it’s playing Russian roulette with the future of many millions of Americans.
    As somebody else has remarked, we can deal with shortages of oil — we did it for thousands of years— but shortages of water can be catastrophic to civilizations.

  • Hue-Man

    Don’t rely on Canada’s “Wet Coast” if weather patterns have changed permanently.

    “Metro Vancouver officials announced Friday that lawn watering will be reduced to one day a week, in the wake of the driest spell since 2003.”

    “A record-breaking hot and dry May and June has left the water reservoir at levels usually seen in late July or August.” http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/vancouver-s-record-dry-conditions-lead-to-tough-new-restrictions-1.3137529

    And those disappearing glaciers that feed rivers in Western North America? “Whistler Blackcomb is planning to test snowmaking on the Horstman Glacier in an effort to battle the effects of climate change.”

    “Horstman has been losing half a million cubic metres of snow annually, on average, over the last decade because of hotter summers…” http://www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/whistler-to-test-snowmaking-on-glacier-to-fight-climate-change-1.2424882

  • Faina Cradz

    there is many threats to society today. Wars happen more often than they should. People obviously need to be acknowledged of consequences. College education must play a crucial role in raising adequate society, and lots of conclusions have to be made.

  • GeorgeMokray

    I’ve heard at least one analyst who doesn’t believe in the water war hypothesis. He pointed out that desalinization and other technologies to produce or reclaim potable water are not prohibitively expensive compared to the human need. Mebbe so, mebbe no.

  • maria_rmartin
  • AlaynaJPrice
  • The_Fixer

    Ah yes, the Rapture. Where all the good believers will get whipped up into heaven to enjoy eternal something or other.

    Myself, I can’t wait for the Rapture. It’ll get these dufuses out of the way so we can get some real work done and not have to listen them yammer on and on.

  • Aye, but you know what: There are many in the fanatic Christianist movement who want the world’s ecosystem to collapse and any manner of war and avoidable unnatural (i.e., human-caused) disasters to happen. Why? Because they think that’ll bring Jeebus back and bring on their Rapture event and Apocalypse.

    Personally, I almost wish Yahweh — the angry, spiteful deity of the Old Testament, the one with the hair-trigger temper and impulse control issues — would take his faithful followers away, so they can spend all of eternity being terrorized by their super-deity and his arbitrary, capricious demands. Then the rest of us can get on with valuing science, rational behavior, and critical thinking over blind irrational beliefs.

  • The_Fixer

    That was my thought when reading this.

    We can live with an oil shortage (although it would be difficult), but we have some alternatives to oil-generated power. Vehicles can be powered electrically, or with some other alternative fuels. There’s just no substitute for water.

    This is the byproduct of reckless overpopulation. One way or another, population control will come. It can come willingly with responsible control of birth, or be forced upon us through starvation due to a lack of water needed to grow food.

    I’m looking at you, Duggars. If everybody was part of the creepy and irresponsible Quiverfull movement, we’d already be at the point of no return.

  • Don Chandler

    The expression use to be “Visualize World Peace.” Now it’s “Visualize hell.” [or pitch forks and nooses]

  • quax

    Don’t take it for granted.

  • nicho

    And the US controls Canada. So the statement stands.

  • Indigo

    19th century water wars between ranchers and farmers were shooting wars. We haven’t got back to that yet. But it could happen.

  • Indigo

    Agreed. No surprise here.

  • devlzadvocate

    Not mentioned: water as a target. Does a fresh water supply (e.g. a Great Lake) become a target of an opposing faction or power?

  • Meanwhile, trillions of gallons of previously drinkable water is being poisoned and injected deep underground, for the purpose of fracking loose the fossil fuels which are directly responsible for the climate change catastrophe currently underway.

  • quax

    “the U.S. controls the largest reservoirs of fresh water in the world.”

    If you include the Alaskan glaciers maybe, otherwise I think Canada will beat you out.

  • nicho

    This has been coming for a while. It shouldn’t be a surprise to anyone. You have to wonder what the tipping point for revolution will be. Usually, the momentum builds — movements come and go with greater or lesser success — and then one day, often over something seemingly trivial, all hell breaks loose.

    You can see it in revolution after revolution. Just take the fight for gay rights. There were all sorts of movements during the first half of the 20th Century — many if not most of them won’t be remembered by anyone under 60 or so. And then, one night, police did a very unremarkable thing. It was an election year and they raided a gay bar — a very common occurrence in an election year in those days — fully expecting the “fags” to quietly line up and get into the police wagon. Someone — maybe several someones — said “fuck this shit” and it was game on.

    Maybe some day, when someone is standing in an agonizingly long line to buy overpriced water from Nestle or whoever, a group of people will say “fuck this shit” and the revolution will start. Within hours, the corporatists will be on their private jets heading to Dubai or Paraguay — anything to stay one step ahead of the pitchforks and nooses.

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